However, if fully committed financing is not required in the tender phase, the lender will be loosely linked to the consortium. It will provide the consortium with indicative funding conditions and demonstrate its intention to support the consortium. However, it is only much later in the procurement, perhaps after commercial completion, that it will confirm its financing terms and thus become a full member of the consortium by acting as the consortium`s lender. The Big Ten Academic Alliance in the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic, the Claremont Colleges Consortium in Southern California, the Five College Consortium in Massachusetts, and the Consórcio Nacional Honda are among the oldest and most successful university consortia in the world. [Citation needed] The Big Ten Academic Alliance, formerly known as the Committee on Institutional Cooperation, includes members of the Big Ten Athletic Conference. Participants in Five Colleges, Inc. are: Amherst College, Hampshire College, Mount Holyoke College, Smith College and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. Another example of a successful consortium is Ohio`s five colleges: Oberlin College, Ohio Wesleyan University, Kenyon College, College of Wooster, and Denison University. The above-mentioned Claremont Consortium (known as Claremont Colleges) consists of Pomona College, Claremont Graduate University, Scripps College, Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College and Keck Graduate Institute. These consortia have pooled the resources of their member universities and universities to share human and material resources, as well as to link academic and administrative resources. Another example is the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a consortium that standardizes web technologies such as HTML, XML, and CSS. Proponents shall establish the consortium solely for the purpose of submitting an application for the PPP project.
As will be seen below, it is the consortium that eventually becomes the VPS that implements the PPP project. Promoters (or their parent companies) often have to provide guarantees or enter into management or service contracts to cover certain liabilities or risks. A consortium is an association of two or more individuals, companies, organizations or governments (or any combination of these entities) for the purpose of participating in a common activity or pooling their resources to achieve a common goal. The implementation of the PPP project requires the implementation of material design, operation and maintenance activities. This means that the consortium usually consists of sponsors representing these interests. In practice, it is normal for the consortium to include a contractor, a service provider, an operations and maintenance provider and an identified lender. As a general rule, groups of economic operators have the right to apply or be candidates (“joint call for tenders”, also known as “consortia”). For the submission of a tender, the Institute does not require consortia to take a specific legal form; It may be a permanent grouping, legally defined or formed for a particular procurement procedure. A consortium is a group of two or more people, companies or governments working together to achieve a common goal. Companies participating in a consortium have resources, but are otherwise only responsible for the obligations set out in the consortium agreement. Each company that is part of the consortium therefore remains independent from its normal business activities and has no say in the activities of another member that is not related to the consortium.
Consortia are not registered as a legal entity and are formed only by contract Consortia are often found in the non-profit sector, for example in educational institutions. Educational consortia often pool resources such as libraries, research activities and professors and share them with group members to help their students. Several groups of North American colleges and universities work as consortia. It should be noted that the role and status of the lender differs from those of other consortium members. If fully committed financing is required when tendering is submitted, the lender is a “related” member of the consortium. As a general rule, ppp project financing is provided in accordance with the terms of the bid submission, provided that all parties agree on certain modifications to the financing solution if necessary. A consortium is made when two or more companies, governments, households or individuals come together to participate in the same objective. Participants often pool their resources. Consortia are common when such projects go beyond what a single company, individual, or government can do. In Germany, the prevailing view is that the consortium is a kind of civil law partnership (§§ 705-740 BGB). In external relations, the members of the consortium may decide on joint and several liability governed by § 421 BGB, whereas internally there is sometimes an exemption from this liability. Joint ventures often include credit consortia, securities issuance consortia, including mainly shares (issue consortia), construction consortia, also known as investment consortia, and profit pools.
Sometimes special purpose vehicles created to share structures (planning companies) are listed in a category with the consortium and pool. Cooperation agreements concluded under German law do not have a uniform legal character. There is a wide range of legal forms of cooperation that could be conservatively described as consortium agreements. These include a civil partnership in its internal and occasional variants (occasional company), as well as a partnership of contractors (ARGE) and a structure simply called a “consortium”.  The consortium that responds to the tender of the tender authority generally includes the following main private partners, all of whom may need to bid together on an exclusive basis. The Tornado was designed and built by Panavia Aircraft GmbH, a trinational consortium consisting of British Aerospace (formerly British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany and Aeritalia of Italy. [Citation needed] In the United States and throughout Europe, there are differences between consortia and joint ventures. In the United States, consortia are widely used in the nonprofit sector, especially educational institutions, and include, for example, the Five College Consortium in Massachusetts, the Quaker Consortium, Claremont Colleges, and the Big Ten Academic Alliance.